How to create correlation network plots with corrr and ggraph (and which countries drink like Australia)
@drsimonj here to show you how to use ggraph and corrr to create correlation network plots like these:
ggraph and corrr
The ggraph package by Thomas Lin Pedersen, has just been published on CRAN and it’s so hot right now! What does it do?
“ggraph is an extension of ggplot2 aimed at supporting relational data structures such as networks, graphs, and trees.”
A relational metric I work with a lot is correlations. Becuase of this, I created the corrr package, which helps to explore correlations by leveraging data frames and tidyverse tools rather than matrices.
- corrr creates relational data frames of correlations intended to work with tidyverse tools like ggplot2.
- ggraph extends ggplot2 to help plot relational structures.
Seems like a perfect match!
We’ll be using the following libraries:
library(tidyverse) library(corrr) library(igraph) library(ggraph)
Given a data frame
d of numeric variables for which we want to plot the correlations in a network, here’s a basic approach:
# Create a tidy data frame of correlations tidy_cors <- d %>% correlate() %>% stretch() # Convert correlations stronger than some value # to an undirected graph object graph_cors <- tidy_cors %>% filter(abs(r) > `VALUE_BETWEEN_0_AND_1`) %>% graph_from_data_frame(directed = FALSE) # Plot ggraph(graph_cors) + geom_edge_link() + geom_node_point() + geom_node_text(aes(label = name), repel = TRUE) + theme_graph()
Example 1: correlating variables in mtcars
Let’s follow this for the
mtcars data set. By default, all variables are numeric, so we don’t need to do any pre-processing.
We first create a tidy data frame of correlations to be converted to a graph object. We do this with two corrr functions:
correlate(), to create a correlation data frame, and
stretch(), to convert it into a tidy format:
tidy_cors <- mtcars %>% correlate() %>% stretch() tidy_cors #> # A tibble: 121 × 3 #> x y r #> <chr> <chr> <dbl> #> 1 mpg mpg NA #> 2 mpg cyl -0.8521620 #> 3 mpg disp -0.8475514 #> 4 mpg hp -0.7761684 #> 5 mpg drat 0.6811719 #> 6 mpg wt -0.8676594 #> 7 mpg qsec 0.4186840 #> 8 mpg vs 0.6640389 #> 9 mpg am 0.5998324 #> 10 mpg gear 0.4802848 #> # ... with 111 more rows
Next, we convert these values to an undirected graph object. The graph is undirected because correlations do not have a direction. For example, correlations do not assume cause or effect. This is done using the igraph function,
graph_from_data_frame(directed = FALSE).
Because, we typically don’t want to see ALL of the correlations, we first
filter() out any correlations with an absolute value less than some threshold. For example, let’s include correlations that are .3 or stronger (positive OR negative):
graph_cors <- tidy_cors %>% filter(abs(r) > .3) %>% graph_from_data_frame(directed = FALSE) graph_cors #> IGRAPH UN-- 11 88 -- #> + attr: name (v/c), r (e/n) #> + edges (vertex names): #>  mpg --cyl mpg --disp mpg --hp mpg --drat mpg --wt mpg --qsec #>  mpg --vs mpg --am mpg --gear mpg --carb mpg --cyl cyl --disp #>  cyl --hp cyl --drat cyl --wt cyl --qsec cyl --vs cyl --am #>  cyl --gear cyl --carb mpg --disp cyl --disp disp--hp disp--drat #>  disp--wt disp--qsec disp--vs disp--am disp--gear disp--carb #>  mpg --hp cyl --hp disp--hp hp --drat hp --wt hp --qsec #>  hp --vs hp --carb mpg --drat cyl --drat disp--drat hp --drat #>  drat--wt drat--vs drat--am drat--gear mpg --wt cyl --wt #> + ... omitted several edges
We now plot this object with ggraph. Here’s a basic plot:
ggraph(graph_cors) + geom_edge_link() + geom_node_point() + geom_node_text(aes(label = name))
and here’s one that’s polished to look nicer:
ggraph(graph_cors) + geom_edge_link(aes(edge_alpha = abs(r), edge_width = abs(r), color = r)) + guides(edge_alpha = "none", edge_width = "none") + scale_edge_colour_gradientn(limits = c(-1, 1), colors = c("firebrick2", "dodgerblue2")) + geom_node_point(color = "white", size = 5) + geom_node_text(aes(label = name), repel = TRUE) + theme_graph() + labs(title = "Correlations between car variables")
For an excellent resource on how these graphing parts work, Thomas has some great posts like this one on his blog, data-imaginist.com.
Example 2: countries with similar drinking habits
This example requires some data pre-processing, and we’ll only look at strong positive correlations.
I’m about to finish my job in Australia and am looking for work elsewhere. As is typical of Australians, a friend suggested I look for work in countries where people drink like us. This is probably not the best approach for job hunting, but it makes for a fun example!
Conveniently, FiveThirtyEight did a story on the amount of beer, wine, and spirits, drunk by countries around the world. Even more conveniently, the data is included in the fivethirtyeight package! Let’s take a look:
library(fivethirtyeight) drinks #> # A tibble: 193 × 5 #> country beer_servings spirit_servings wine_servings #> <chr> <int> <int> <int> #> 1 Afghanistan 0 0 0 #> 2 Albania 89 132 54 #> 3 Algeria 25 0 14 #> 4 Andorra 245 138 312 #> 5 Angola 217 57 45 #> 6 Antigua & Barbuda 102 128 45 #> 7 Argentina 193 25 221 #> 8 Armenia 21 179 11 #> 9 Australia 261 72 212 #> 10 Austria 279 75 191 #> # ... with 183 more rows, and 1 more variables: #> # total_litres_of_pure_alcohol <dbl>
I wanted to find which countries in Europe and the Americas had similar patterns of beer, wine, and spirit drinking, and where Australia fit in. Using the countrycode package to bind continent information and find the countries I’m interested, let’s get this data into shape for correlations:
library(countrycode) # Get relevant data for Australia and countries # in Europe and the Americas d <- drinks %>% mutate(continent = countrycode(country, "country.name", "continent")) %>% filter(continent %in% c("Europe", "Americas") | country == "Australia") %>% select(country, contains("servings")) # Scale data to examine relative amounts, # rather than absolute volume, of # beer, wine and spirits drunk scaled_data <- d %>% mutate_if(is.numeric, scale) # Tidy the data tidy_data <- scaled_data %>% gather(type, litres, -country) %>% drop_na() %>% group_by(country) %>% filter(sd(litres) > 0) %>% ungroup() # Widen into suitable format for correlations wide_data <- tidy_data %>% spread(country, litres) %>% select(-type) wide_data #> # A tibble: 3 × 78 #> Albania Andorra `Antigua & Barbuda` Argentina Australia #> * <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> #> 1 -1.0798330 0.68479335 -0.9327808 0.09658458 0.8657807 #> 2 -0.1146881 -0.04560957 -0.1607405 -1.34658934 -0.8054739 #> 3 -0.4577044 2.16796347 -0.5492974 1.24185582 1.1502628 #> # ... with 73 more variables: Austria <dbl>, Bahamas <dbl>, #> # Barbados <dbl>, Belarus <dbl>, Belgium <dbl>, Belize <dbl>, #> # Bolivia <dbl>, `Bosnia-Herzegovina` <dbl>, Brazil <dbl>, #> # Bulgaria <dbl>, Canada <dbl>, Chile <dbl>, Colombia <dbl>, `Costa #> # Rica` <dbl>, Croatia <dbl>, Cuba <dbl>, `Czech Republic` <dbl>, #> # Denmark <dbl>, Dominica <dbl>, `Dominican Republic` <dbl>, #> # Ecuador <dbl>, `El Salvador` <dbl>, Estonia <dbl>, Finland <dbl>, #> # France <dbl>, Germany <dbl>, Greece <dbl>, Grenada <dbl>, #> # Guatemala <dbl>, Guyana <dbl>, Haiti <dbl>, Honduras <dbl>, #> # Hungary <dbl>, Iceland <dbl>, Ireland <dbl>, Italy <dbl>, #> # Jamaica <dbl>, Latvia <dbl>, Lithuania <dbl>, Luxembourg <dbl>, #> # Macedonia <dbl>, Malta <dbl>, Mexico <dbl>, Moldova <dbl>, #> # Monaco <dbl>, Montenegro <dbl>, Netherlands <dbl>, Nicaragua <dbl>, #> # Norway <dbl>, Panama <dbl>, Paraguay <dbl>, Peru <dbl>, Poland <dbl>, #> # Portugal <dbl>, Romania <dbl>, `Russian Federation` <dbl>, `San #> # Marino` <dbl>, Serbia <dbl>, Slovakia <dbl>, Slovenia <dbl>, #> # Spain <dbl>, `St. Kitts & Nevis` <dbl>, `St. Lucia` <dbl>, `St. #> # Vincent & the Grenadines` <dbl>, Suriname <dbl>, Sweden <dbl>, #> # Switzerland <dbl>, `Trinidad & Tobago` <dbl>, Ukraine <dbl>, `United #> # Kingdom` <dbl>, Uruguay <dbl>, USA <dbl>, Venezuela <dbl>
This data includes the z-scores of the amount of beer, wine and spirits drunk in each country.
We can now go ahead with our standard approach. Because I’m only interested in which countries are really similar, we’ll
filter(r > .9):
It looks like the drinking behaviour of these countries group into three clusters. I’ll leave it to you do think about what defines those clusters!
The important thing for my friend: Australia appears in the top left cluster along with many West and North European countries like the United Kingdom, France, Netherlands, Norway, and Sweden. Perhaps this is the region I should look for work if I want to keep up Aussie drinking habits!
Thanks for reading and I hope this was useful for you.
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